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Gunung Kelud (Kelut)


Mt. Kelud
Crater Lake
Chemical Composition
A Quick History Lesson
Cool Facts!

Badrudin, M. 1994. Kelut volcano monitoring: Hazards, mitigation and changes in water chemistry prior to the 1990 eruption. Geochemical Journal, 28: 233-241. Retrieved January 18 2008 from


Bernard, A. 2000. Geochemistry of the crater lake of Kelut volcano, Indonesia. Retrieved January 20 2008 from Geobase (Elsevier Engineering Village):


Bourdier, J.-L. et. al. 1997. Observations, stratigraphy and eruptive processes of the 1990 eruption of Kelut volcano, Indonesia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 79: 181-203. Retrieved January 20 2008 from Geobase (Elsevier Engineering Village):


Global Volcanism Program. 2008. Smithsonian Institution: National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved January 21 2008 from


Keller, E. A. 2005. Introduction to Environmental Geology: 3rd edition. New Jersey: Pearson-Prentice Hall.


Minoru, K. 1994. Special Issue: Geochemistry of Crater Lakes. Geochemical Journal, 28: 137-138. Retrieved January 20 2008 from


Montgomery, C. W. 2000. Environmental Geology: 5th edition update. Boston: McGraw-Hill.


Plummer, C.C. et. al. 2007. Physical Geology and the Environment: 2nd Canadian Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.


Rymer, H. 2000. Part VI: Volcano Interactions. In: Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Ed. H. Sigurdsson et al. Retrieved January 23 2008 from


Simkin et al. 2001. Kelut Volcano, Island of Java. Retrieved January 20 2008 from Volcano World:


Thouret, J.C. et. al. 1997. Origin, characteristics, and behaviour of lahars following the 1990 eruption of Kelud volcano, eastern Java (Indonesia). Bulletin Vulcanology, 59: 460-480. Retrieved January 21 2008 from


U.S. Geological Survey. 2000. Lahars and Their Effects—Pathways of Destruction. Retrieved January 23 2008, from


U.S. Geological Survey. 2003. Why are Mount St. Helens’ eruptions generally more explosive than those of Kilauea? Retrieved 23 January 2008 from

by Victoria Gauthier (0330250)
Geology 1020
January 2008