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Gunung Kelud (Kelut)

Stratovolcanoes
Mt. Kelud
Crater Lake
Glossary
Stratovolcanoes
Chemical Composition
Lahar
A Quick History Lesson
Cool Facts!
References

Useful facts about the not-so-friendly composite volcano!

Source:http://www.solcomhouse.com/comvol.gif
stratovolcano.gif
Please note the distinctive layers.

Stratovolcanoes (or composite volcanoes)

 

Stratovolcanoes are characterized by their cone shape, which is shaped so evenly due to the alternating layers of magma and pyroclastic flows (Keller, 2005). These volcanoes are distinguishable by their explosive nature, due in part to their high SiO2 content, but also due to the fact that they are so gaseous. These gases are trapped in the viscous lava flow and often just erupt (sort of like bubbles) randomly throughout the flow, making this sort of lava stream particularly dangerous to its surroundings. When these gaseous magmas erupt however, creates a pyroclastic rain of minerals and ash that covers the dome of the mountain (Montgomery, 2000). These pyroclastic eruptions, followed by the regular lava flow, create the layered characteristic mentioned above. Bernard (2000) also suggests that a third layer could also be considered: a layer of deposits from the lahars that are particularly characteristic of Mt. Kelud, whose crater lake causes devastating mudslides.

 

The dangerous nature of composite volcanoes can be further reinforced by the fact that they are the most responsible for the volcano-related deaths that have been documented throughout history (Keller, 2005).

 

The most common form of rock produced by eruptions from composite volcanoes is andesite, which is a fine-grained igneous rock that is partly feldspar, iron and magnesium (Plummer et. al., 2007).

 

Some famous stratovolcanoes include Mt. St. Helens and Mt. Rainier (both in Washington, DC).

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by Victoria Gauthier (0330250)
Geology 1020
January 2008